Writing tips

Writing advice from famous authors

It’s a new year and you’ve made new writing goals. Will you begin/finish your book this year? What writing goals do you have? To help you reach your goals, I’ve rounded up important writing advice from famous authors. Take what you want, ignore the rest:

Writing advice from famous authors: Ray Bradbury

Writing advice from famous authors

If you want to write, if you want to create, you must be the most sublime fool that God ever turned to and sent rambling.

You must write every single day of your life.

Read dreadful dumb books and glorious books, ad let them wrestle in beautiful fights inside your head, vulgar one moment, brilliant the next.

You must lurk in libraries and climb the stacks like ladders to sniff books like perfumes and wear books like hats upon your crazy heads.

I wish you a wrestling match with your Creative Muse that will last a lifetime.

I wish craziness and foolishness and madness upon you.

May you live with hysteria, and out of it make fine stories—science fiction or otherwise.

Which finally means, may you be in love every day for the next 20,000 days.

And out of that love, remake a world.

Writing advice from famous authors: Elmore Leonard:

Making a publishing decision? The publishing industry is in the midst of turmoil. Those cart tracks have expanded to four-lane super highways. Anyone who wants to be published nowadays can be. Writing advice from famous authors

  1. Begin writing before you put the coffee on.
  2. Never open a book with weather.
  3. Avoid prologues.
  4. Never use a verb other than “said” to carry dialogue.
  5. Don’t use a an adverb to modify the verb “said.”
  6. Keep your exclamation points under control.
  7. Never use the words “suddenly” or “all hell broke loose”.
  8. Use regional dialect, patois, sparingly.
  9. Avoid detailed descriptions of characters.
  10. Don’t go into great detail describing places and things.
  11. Try to leave out the part that readers tend to skip. Readers won’t skip dialogue.
  12. Keep it simple.
  13. You have to have fun at this, or it’ll drive you nuts.
  14. Don’t worry about what your mother thinks about it.
  15. It’s very, very important to have a style or sound to your writing.
  16. Writing is rewriting, constantly rewriting.
  17. If it sounds like writing, rewrite it.

Writing advice from famous authors: Seth Godin

We are always looking for more time to write. How can we do it? I can't say it any more eloquently than the Reader's Digest:Writing advice from famous authors

  1. Lower your expectations.
  2. The best time to start promoting your book is three years before it comes out.
  3. Pay for an editor.
  4. Understand that a non-fiction book is a souvenir.
  5. Don’t try to sell your book to everyone.
  6. Resist the temptation to hire a publicist.
  7. Think hard before you spend a year trying to please one person in New York.
  8. Your book cover matters.
  9. If you have a real publisher, invest in a few things.
  10. In case you skipped it, check #2 again.
  11. Blurbs are overrated.
  12. Blog mentions matter a lot.
  13. Bookstore talks and book club interviews by phone work.
  14. Consider the free PDF option.
  15. Show up in places where people who don’t usually buy books spend time.
  16. Most books that sell by the truckload sell by the caseload.
  17. Publishing a book is not the same as printing a book.
  18. Bookstores are run by absolutely terrific  people.
  19. Writing a book is a tremendous experience.

Writing advice from famous authors: John Steinbeck

Writing advice from famous authors


Now let me give you the benefit of my experience in facing 400 pages of blank stock—the appalling stuff that must be filled. I know that no one really wants the benefit of anyone’s experience which is probably why it is freely offered. But the following are some of the things I have had to do to keep from going nuts.

  1. Abandon the idea that you are ever going to finish. Lose track of the 400 pages and write just one page for each day, it helps. Then when it gets finished, you are always surprised.
  2. Write freely and as rapidly as possible and throw the whole thing on paper. Never correct or rewrite until the whole thing is down. Rewrite in process is usually found to be an excuse for not going on. It also interferes with flow and rhythm which can only come from a kind of unconscious association with the material.
  3. Forget your generalized audience. In the first place, the nameless, faceless audience will scare you to death, and in the second place, unlike the theatre, it doesn’t exist. I have found that sometimes it helps to pick out one person—a real person you know, or an imagined person—and write to that one.
  4. If a scene or a section gets the better of you and you still think you want it—bypass it and go on. When you have finished the whole you can come back to it and then you may find that the reason it give trouble is because it didn’t belong there.
  5. Beware of a scene that becomes too dear to you, dearer than the rest. It will usually be found that it is out of drawing.
  6. If you are using dialogue—say it aloud as you write it. Only then will it have the sound of speech.

Well, actually that’s about all.

I know that no two people have the same methods. However, these mostly work for me.

Writing advice from famous authors: David Ogilvy (Advertising master)

Writing advice from famous authors

How to Write

The better you write, the higher you go in Ogilvy & Mather. People who think well, write well.

Woolly minded people write woolly memos, woolly letters and woolly speeches.

Good writing is not a natural gift. You have to learn to write well. Here are 10 hints:

  1. Read the Roman-Raphaelson book on writing. Read it three times.
  2. Write the way you talk. Naturally.
  3. Use short words, short sentences and short paragraphs.
  4. Never use jargon words like reconceptualize, demassification, attitudinally, judgmentally. They are hallmarks of a pretentious ass.
  5. Never write more than two pages on any subject.
  6. Check your quotations.
  7. Never send a letter or a memo on the day you write it. Read it aloud the next morning — and then edit it.
  8. If it is something important, get a colleague to improve it.
  9. Before you send your letter or your memo, make sure it is crystal clear what you want the recipient to do.
  10. If you want ACTION, don’t write. Go and tell the guy what you want.

Source: The Unpublished David Ogilvy (1986)

Writing advice from famous authors:Pixar

Writing advice from famous authors

The following first appeared in this blog here. I’m re-posting it because of its relevance.

  1. You admire a character for trying more than for their successes.
  2.  You gotta keep in mind what’s interesting to you as an audience, not what’s fun to do as a writer. They can be v. different.
  3.  Trying for theme is important, but you won’t see what the story is actually about til you’re at the end of it. Now rewrite.
  4.  Once upon a time there was ___. Every day, ___. One day ___. Because of that, ___. Because of that, ___. Until finally ___.
  5.  Simplify. Focus. Combine characters. Hop over detours. You’ll feel like you’re losing valuable stuff but it sets you free.
  6.  What is your character good at, comfortable with? Throw the polar opposite at them. Challenge them. How do they deal?
  7.  Come up with your ending before you figure out your middle. Seriously. Endings are hard, get yours working up front.
  8.  Finish your story, let go even if it’s not perfect. In an ideal world you have both, but move on. Do better next time.
  9.  When you’re stuck, make a list of what WOULDN’T happen next. Lots of times the material to get you unstuck will show up.
  10.  Pull apart the stories you like. What you like in them is a part of you; you’ve got to recognize it before you can use it.
  11.  Putting it on paper lets you start fixing it. If it stays in your head, a perfect idea, you’ll never share it with anyone.
  12.  Discount the 1st thing that comes to mind. And the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th – get the obvious out of the way. Surprise yourself.
  13.  Give your characters opinions. Passive/malleable might seem likable to you as you write, but it’s poison to the audience.
  14.  Why must you tell THIS story? What’s the belief burning within you that your story feeds off of? That’s the heart of it.
  15.  If you were your character, in this situation, how would you feel? Honesty lends credibility to unbelievable situations.
  16.  What are the stakes? Give us reason to root for the character. What happens if they don’t succeed? Stack the odds against.
  17.  No work is ever wasted. If it’s not working, let go and move on – it’ll come back around to be useful later.
  18.  You have to know yourself: the difference between doing your best & fussing. Story is testing, not refining.
  19.  Coincidences to get characters into trouble are great; coincidences to get them out of it are cheating.
  20.  Exercise: take the building blocks of a movie you dislike. How d’you rearrange them into what you DO like?
  21.  You gotta identify with your situation/characters, can’t just write ‘cool’. What would make YOU act that way?
  22.  What’s the essence of your story? Most economical telling of it? If you know that, you can build out from there.

Source: http://www.pixartouchbook.com/blog/2011/5/15/pixar-story-rules-one-version.html

I hope you have enjoyed these tips and that they will make a difference to your writing.

What tips do you have to share?

Mine are B.I.C. and F.O.K. (Butt In Chair, Fingers on Keyboard)




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Scene and sequel are an important element in constructing a novel.

It’s #ThrowbackThursday, and we’re revising a post from May, 2016 on the important subject of scene and sequel. Now that your NaNo book is complete (it is, isn’t it?) and you’re deep in revisions (you are, aren’t you?) you might want to take a look at scene and sequel pacing.

Scene and Sequel

Scene and sequel are an important part of constructing a novelScene and sequel always sounded so esoteric to me, a lofty action practiced by those in the literary world. It seemed precise and calculated and very dry and boring. Not at all the way I plotted my stories, which has always been a dash of pantsing and enough planning to know the key events, but none of the details.

I was wrong. Scene and sequel is something I’ve done since first putting pencil to paper and fingers to keyboard. It’s another way of describing pacing, cause and effect, action and reaction. Both are critical to building your story and without them it is flat, and your reader will stop turning pages.

Scenes are the moments of conflict between your characters, the “stuff” that happens to them, the establishment of the goals they want, the thing or person that gets in the way, and the failure to obtain what they set out to achieve.

Sequels are the transitions between scenes, the aftermath, when the character reacts to what has just happened, reviews it, and makes a decision that leads him to a new goal and further conflict.


The functions of a scene are varied.

  • It moves the story forward by changing the character’s situation.
  • The reader is involved by thrusting the character into opposition, creating tension as the reader wonders if the character will obtain his goal.
  • It gives the character opportunity to grow.
  • It shows the character’s strengths and weaknesses, values and beliefs.


Goals should be:

  • Specific
  • Concrete
  • Immediate enough for the character to take action

Scenes consist of three elements:

  1. The goal. Usually short—term, but tied into the overall story goal. The character must want something.

To fall in love is a weak goal, but to join an on-line dating service and ask your friends to fix you up with the objective of six blind dates in two weeks is a specific, concrete goal.

What the character wants, his goal, is either:

  • To possess something. Love, peace, the magic elixir, the return to a farmhouse in Kansas.
  • Relief from something. Poverty, boredom, the Ring of Sauron.
  • Revenge for something. A double-cross, violence, the murder the one-armed man committed.

2. Opposition. Two starving dogs, one bone. Someone wins, someone loses. Readers love conflict. They can identify with the fight and root for your character to overcome his obstacles, get the girl and live happily ever after. Of course, if you structure your scene correctly, the obstacles become more insurmountable, the stakes are continually raised, and the hero doesn’t get the girl until he’s faced his worst fears.

How do you make it harder for your protagonist?

  • The mortgage payment on the old homestead is due, and Johnny’s been unsuccessful in getting an extension from the bank’s new officer.
  • Increase the obstacles in his way by having him receive unexpected information. Cattle futures are in flux, and he must hustle to get his herd to market to get the best price.

New complications equals renewed character effort which equals renewed reader commitment.

3. A logical but unanticipated situation upsets the character’s progress and leads to new questions for the reader. Can the protagonist succeed in lieu of new information? What will he do now?

  • The dastardly bank officer (Dastardly Dan) calls in the loan.
  • Rumors swirl about the railroad cutting through land east of town, right where Johnny’s farm lies.
  • Beloved, innocent Nell spurns him in favor of Dastardly Dan, who plans on selling the foreclosed farm to the railroad for unlimited wealth.
  • A snowstorm threatens to wipe out the herd.

Scene and sequel are an important element in constructing a novel.


  • The reader is not engaged.

Solution: Anchor him by focusing on a character, even if it’s not the story’s main character. Revolve the action and drama around a specific character so the reader can gauge what happens and how he feels about it.

  • The goal is not clear.

Solution: Establish it early, in black and white so the reader worries about the outcome.

  • The goal is weak.

Solution: Make the goal short-term, something the character thinks is achievable. Keep the goal forefront throughout the action; don’t let him lose sight of it.

  • The character is weak.

Solution: Increase the stakes again if he doesn’t achieve his scene goal. Always have your character making choices instead of passively waiting for something to happen.

  • There is a lack of urgency.

Solution: Add a timeline. Force your character to take immediate action. Johnny has to get his herd to the train depot before Friday when the bank note is due.

  • There is not enough opposition or it is weak.

Solution: Beef up the antagonist. Give him strong motives as well and a specific, concrete goal mutually exclusive of your hero’s. A strong antagonist gives the protagonist focus and makes him stronger.

  • The scene feels contrived.

Solution: The “Act of God” ploy can occasionally work, but the disaster should be organic to the character and the story. Maybe Johnny knew about the approaching storm but instead of rushing his herd to market, he spent the time with Nell. This compounds his problems, as losing the farm now becomes his fault.

Scene and sequel are an important element in constructing a novel.


The timeframe should be linear, with no breaks.

Establish the time, place, circumstances and point of view at the start.

Establish the character’s goal at the start. It must be clear, concrete, and explicit in order to intrigue the reader. Without a goal there is no conflict, no action and no reason for the reader to stick around.

If applicable, use a focused, unexpected hook to draw in the reader.

  • “I saw Dastardly Dan with your gal last night.”
  • “What’s this I hear about old man McGee selling out to the B&O railroad?”
  • “The storm’s cut the telegraph lines between here and Summitville. Got your herd in yet?”

This is no time for flashbacks. In reality, in the swirl of action and opposition, your character doesn’t have time to sit back and reflect on how he arrived at this mess.

Flashbacks interrupt the story’s flow and make the reader lose interest.

Don’t summarize. You want to display every facet of your character’s agony. Don’t gloss over what he’s feeling.

Mind the old adage, “show don’t tell.” If Johnny’s upset because Nell is seeing Dastardly Dan, have him punch a hole in the barn door or chop a cord of wood with vengeance.

Show character motivation and reaction. Why does Johnny want to save the farm? Why should I care? What happens if he doesn’t? What does he feel when he learns of the call of the bank note? Nell’s infidelity? The approaching storm? Don’t spend a lot of time on his internalization, this is a place to show action, after all, but give me, the reader, reasons why I should stick around.

Don’t skimp on the scene’s length. Scenes are inherently longer than sequels. The importance of the goal needs to be established as well as the conflict and how the repercussions will affect your character. A satisfying emotional peak must be built, drawing in the reader and making life hell for the hero. Unanticipated information and problems must be introduced and the establishment of characterization explored. These all demand time. Save brevity for the sequels.


Okay, your hero has met his Waterloo and is defeated. What is his reaction? His state of mind? What will he do next?

Sequels explore these areas. A sequel is a bridge between two scenes. It is the aftermath, the place where earlier events are mulled over and a new decision made, which will, of course, lead to deeper conflict.

The function of a scene is:

  • To give introspection. What just happened? What is the character feeling? Is Johnny angry? Upset? Jealous? Scared? Probably all of the above. What is his next step?
  • Slow the pace. We’ve climbed the emotional peak with Johnny is his quest to save the farm. Now we need to take a breather and regroup.
  • Translate the disaster into a new goal. The character will shortly enter a new scene with a new goal. How does he get there? By finding a reason in the earlier disaster to turn in a new direction (and more conflict, but he doesn’t know this yet. Your reader, smart person she is, already has it figured out and can’t wait to see what’s in store for him).

The character must act with reason and motivation. His decision – this or that – leads to a new goal. Does Johnny pack up and move to Cincinnati? If yes, he faces a new goal and new conflicts. Does he find a new buyer for his beef? How? Where? Whatever he decides brings consequences.

  • Shorten reality. We don’t need to see the play-by-play of Johnny’s decision. We know it might take time for him to come to a conclusion, but we can’t afford to lose the reader’s attention.

Scene and sequel are an important element in constructing a novel.


Sequels consist of three elements.

  1. Emotional reaction. This can be expressed by what the character is feeling, dialogue, and his reaction. This is a good time to add detail, to show how he feels with attention to the little things. Make the aftermath of the violent storm reflect his mood. Does the death of a calf mirror the end of his dreams? Does his reflection in a pool of melted snow show the failure he’s become? In a few chosen words, you can access his feelings.
  2. What should he do? The alternatives should be equally unappealing. Move to Cincinnati? It will prove he’s a quitter, just like his old man always said. Find a new buyer for this beef? Will he have time? Good or bad, your character will have to puzzle out what action to take.
  3. Ultimately, your character has to make a decision. He has a new goal that is logical and plausible. Sure, the stakes are higher, but the risk is worth it.


Writing the sequel consists of three elements.

  1. Time must be compressed. Johnny enters the saloon and doesn’t emerge for a week. He sits in his darkened cabin, shooting holes in the walls. In effect, he’s a mess, but you don’t have time to go into his emotional breakdown. You want to keep the reader engaged, so his troubles have to be telescoped into one feeling, one feature that represents everything he’s gone through. Maybe it’s the discovery of a dead calf that spurns him toward the new decision to call in a few favors, send a couple of telegraphs, and, by jingo, find a different buyer.
  2. Your character has experienced a setback, but you can’t afford to wallow in his misery. He must pick himself up, dust himself off, and start all over again. Bridge the time or space by sandwiching it between his most dominate feelings.

“I hate the snow,” Johnny mused as he pulled his collar tighter. “It will make driving the herd harder.”

But it was still snowing when he set out for Tulsa.

  1. Your character’s decision must follow a logical sequence. He’s had a chance to think about things, sort out the alternatives and chose the best one. Of course, this might be the lesser of two evils, but it is a choice and it will propel him into the next scene. He has a new goal; it’s specific, concrete and immediate enough to make him take action.


A balance between scene and sequel should be maintained. After all, what is a roller coaster without long climbs out of the valleys and exhilarating twists, turns and descents? A few rules can help you decide which should play a bigger part of your story.

  • Scenes drive action, which propels the story.
  • Each peak (scene) should be larger than the one preceding it. Stakes are higher, choices uglier, the probability of failure guaranteed the closer you get to the end of your story. Start out with small disasters and escalate them as you go along.
  • If the story drags, make the scenes bigger to increase the conflict and resulting tension.
  • If the story sounds implausible, make the sequel bigger to increase the logic of the character’s choices.
  • Be flexible. Each story is different. Some demand more scene while others cry for a sequel’s introspection. Balance them as best you can. Experience will tell you to take a break in the action or if you need to heighten the conflict.

Writing is not an exact science, but two of the key elements, the amino acids of storytelling, are scene and sequel.

The above article first appeared in “The Plot Thickens:21 Ways to Plot Your Novel”.  Available on Amazon and other distributors.

Thank you for joining me to discuss scene and sequel, important features on writing a novel.



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#Throwback Thursday. Gear Up for NaNoWriMo.

This post is from last December in the aftermath of NaNoWriMo. As thousands of writers gear up for NaNoWriMo this year, heed the common mistakes that could derail your writing:

Losing Motivation:

Since #NaNoWriMo2016 ended, I’ve noticed a lot of Tweets and Facebook posts about writers losing motivation to finish their novel. I confess, I’m one of them. It’s as if the arrival of December 1st gave us a “Get Out of Jail” card. We stop pushing to write 1,667 woNot finished with your NaNo project? How to go forward.rds a day and write “whenever.”

The problem may be we’re either swamped in the middle of the book and don’t see a way out; we’re near the end of the book and don’t see a way out (my problem until two days ago); or we’re caught up in life and the holiday rush, in which case, another few weeks should clear our calendars.

One way or another, we’re stuck. The following is an excerpt from a book I co-authored, The Plot Thickens, 21 Ways to Plot Your Novel. While it was geared toward the ultimate reader, the techniques involved can help you unstick your writing and propel you toward “The End”.

Never Suffer From Plot Flaws Again

SEVERAL THINGS CAN BOG DOWN a plot and make the reader lose interest. That’s not good news. You want the reader on the edge of her seat, turning page after page, staying up until stupid o’clock to read “one more chapter”, letting the bathwater grow cold as she reads in the tub. You do not want the toilet tank syndrome, where she turns your book upside down and leaves it on the toilet tank. Forever. She won’t read further, she won’t tell her friends about it, and she certainly won’t buy your next book.

Let’s take a look at some common mistakes writers make and how to fix them. Some of these are covered in other areas in this book, but repetition is an excellent teacher.


Tip: If you’re having difficulty deciding which “stake” is higher for your character, on where it should be placed in the timeline of your story, write them out on a list and rank them by how bad they will impact your antagonist.

Conflict is vital to a story. Without it, there is no character change. Without change, with its accompanying tension, why should your reader care?

Conflict is the fuel that feeds the plot and makes the character take action he normally wouldn’t. In his everyday life, the reader avoids conflict, but she can live vicariously through your character, taking on demons, saving the world from Armageddon, or simply falling in love. She’ll get caught up in the protagonist’s problems, understand his motives, celebrate his successes and commiserate with his losses. She wants your character to struggle and come out victorious, a better, stronger person.

Conflict should be twofold, external and internal. The external is the easy part. Villains are fun to write, and their goals are as important as the protagonist’s. Push the protagonist into making choices with uglier and uglier consequences. An antagonist will force a normal person beyond his comfort zone, stretching him beyond what he thought himself capable of doing. If your external conflict isn’t a person, if it’s the weather, an earthquake, a tsunami, it should be a major obstacle between the protagonist and his goal.

The internal conflict is harder to write

You shouldn’t shy away from it. The protagonist needs to call on reserves he didn’t know he possessed, to question his values, to face his internal demons. Would Vertigo have been the same movie if Jimmy Stewart, as Scottie Ferguson, hadn’t climbed to the bell tower in search of the woman he’d loved and lost? Would Rocky be the same if Rocky Balboa had continued to not believe in himself? The literary and film worlds are filled with examples of ordinary people who have overcome their greatest fears and triumphed.

Conflicts should be logical to the characters. It should be something that matters to him and makes sense. A virus that threatens to wipe out the city’s population? He can move elsewhere. But a virus that has hit the hospital where his wife is in charge of the E.R.? Now he has a reason to fight for a cure, to locate the brilliant scientist who possess the vaccine. The conflict matters. He has motivation for staying in the face of danger.

Be on the watch for serial conflict, whereby the problem in Chapter 1 is resolved in Chapter 3, to be replaced by another short-lived problem, a string of pearls, until the end of the book. You need to write an ongoing problem that grows deeper and deeper and continues to make life miserable for your protagonist.

Also stay clear of incoherent conflict, thrown into a story to spice it up, but in reality, have nothing to do with the character, his journey, and what he needs to do to get to his goal. It’s distracting, the reader won’t buy into it, and soon, he’ll forgo your book for someone else’s.

As you gear up for NaNoWriMo this year, try resetting the scene.Not setting the scene

Sure, you want to plunge right into the story, dragging your reader into your character’s myriad problems, but it the reader doesn’t anchor himself in the here and now, you’ve lost him. He’ll be so busy wondering what’s going on, that frustration sets in. You do not want a frustrated reader. Include a few, well chosen details that explain the space station orbits Earth in the last decade, or Mars in the next century. Is the high society party set in Regency England or aboard a yacht in today’s Caribbean? Give the reader a small reference then get on with the storytelling.

If you’re in the middle of the story, take the time to show where the action is occurring and how it relates to the last scene. Do your reader the commonest of courtesies.

As you gear up for NaNoWriMo this year, check to see if you are hooking your reader.No hook

 Your reader wants to be drawn into a believable world from word one. He expects to be entertained. Don’t disappoint him. Skip the protagonist sitting with a cup of coffee, contemplating the letter she received from dear Aunt Sally, or in the car on her way to a governess post in the Scottish Highlands. Jump her right into the story—Aunt Sally died, but collecting the inheritance means quitting the job she loves and moving back to the town that gave her heartache. Or a car bomb goes off, leaving her stranded in the Scottish Highlands.

Conversely, don’t plunge the reader so quickly into the story with a one-line exclamation from the protagonist. The reader has no context in which to place it. It’s a cheap device that’s been overused.

Instead, start where the protagonist’s problem begins, raise questions that intrigue the reader, and filter in back-story later.

As you gear up for NaNoWriMo this year, check to see if it has a sagging middle.The sagging middle

The middle is vital in holding your reader’s attention. It’s where the protagonist will encounter the bulk of his trials and tribulations, where her strength will be tested and flaws exposed. It’s where you torture your darlings and force them through life-changing events. It sets up the major crisis at the end of the book and paves the way for a satisfying conclusion.

To avoid a sagging middle, introduce questions that make the reader hang around until he is satisfied with the answers. What is the protagonist’s challenge he’ll have to overcome? What does he truly, truly want? (Remember the external and internal goals). How will the antagonist stop him from reaching his goal? How will the external plot events magnify the protagonist’s internal conflicts? Will his flaws get in the way of his attempts to resolve the external plot?

If you challenge your protagonist, your reader will follow.

Weak ending

Don’t let your reader down at the end of the book. They’ve hung with you through hundreds of pages and expect a payoff. Here are four common mistakes to avoid disappointing them:

—Ending too fast. Maybe the author was tired of the characters and wanted to move on. Maybe she didn’t know how to end it. Whatever the reason, don’t shortchange the reader. Remember, the ending is the last impression the reader has of your story. Give them satisfaction. They’ll remember when your next book is published.

—Endings that drag on too long. The opposite of the abrupt ending is the one that seemingly goes on forever. Maybe the author loved the story and characters so much she didn’t want to let go. Don’t lose your reader’s interest by going on too long. Leave them wanting more.

—The ho-hum ending. You’ve opened the book with an incredible hook, you’ve layered in plenty of conflict and tension, but the ending doesn’t live up to the buildup. Reward the reader for their patience with an ending that matches their expectations.

—The predictable or cliché ending. The fat high school kid attends his ten-year reunion, now trim and thin and a millionaire. He wins over the prom queen, takes to the stage as M.C. and has everyone eating out of his hand. This type of ending is too neat and unbelievable. Give the hero his just reward, but make him suffer to earn it.

The end should give resolution and catharsis to the reader.

It should show how the protagonist has changed since the beginning of the story. Their world should be back to normal, but a new normal. They’ve gone through an incredible journey and emerged a stronger person.

The external conflict is resolved in the climax, but don’t forget to give the reader resolution to the internal conflict, for it’s what they will most identify with. It should emotionally satisfy them and reinforce the faith they gave you on page one.

Tie up loose ends, resolve all conflicts, reinforce the theme, show the protagonist’s growth and give the reader catharsis. Make the reader’s last experience with your book memorable.

Too much back-story

Yes, you want the reader to know poor Matilda was jilted at the altar and will never trust another man. It’s important they realize the hero’s fear of horses derives from an accident that crippled his sister. But, and here’s the important part, not on the first page. Nor the first chapter. Yes, details are important so the reader can identify with the characters, but too much detail will drive them away.

Back-story kills suspense. If the reader knows everything about the protagonist, they will have no reason to ask questions and wonder, what next? But once you’ve raised speculation, you have them hooked.

Back-story slows the pace. If you start out with a bang, with an explosion at the U.S. Embassy, and you segue into how the pretty receptionist shouldn’t have worked that day because her mother is due in from Sydney, and she needs to clean her apartment before she arrives, you’ve killed any interest the reader has in why the bomb went off and who set it.

Back-story doesn’t allow the reader to grow with the protagonist. If your hero has to discover secrets about himself, allow the reader to travel on the journey with him.

The best advice I’ve read, and I don’t recall the author or I’d give her credit, was to treat the back-story as a mirror. Break it and sprinkle the shards throughout the story. Pull the reader deeper into the story by giving her one piece of the puzzle at a time.

The scene isn’t working

You stare at your computer screen, you read and re-read the words over and over again, and you might avoid writing because something isn’t working. The characters refuse to cooperate with you, the dialogue is flat and lifeless, or something doesn’t feel right. To clear up this dissatisfaction, backtrack to where things went wrong. Try alternative plot lines. Brainstorm different things until you hit upon the solution.

As you gear up for NaNoWriMo this year, check the pace.Uneven pace

By rights, your novel’s pace should be uneven. One continuous car chase after another doesn’t give the reader time to catch their breath. You want to build in downtime to allow the tension to rise and grow again. This rollercoaster effect guarantees continued interest.

You’ve read about the danger of dumping back-story into the beginning of your story. It kills the tension. The pace slows, and the reader is lost. Save the descriptions for someplace other than the action scenes.

To control the pace in your story, structure it into one of three types of scenes.

—Action scenes. These don’t necessarily have to be full of car chases and flying bullets. They should be centered on the protagonist acting to overcome the obstacles in her way to her goal. The action should lead to a consequence. The stakes grow higher, and the reader becomes more vested in what will happen next.

—Descriptive scene. Setting, description, back-story and character reflection are found in the descriptive scene. It will slow the pace, but it gives your reader a chance to recover from an action scene. A descriptive scene should give the reader information that is important to the story.

—Transition scene, also known as sequel. This could be a change in setting, time or viewpoint. It’s used to stitch two scenes together.

Another way to control pace is with sentence and paragraph length. As the end of the story nears and the villain closes in on the hero, ratchet up the tension by using shorter sentences and paragraphs.

The important thing to remember is to include at least one event in each scene that affects the main plot.

Author intrusion

“Little did Frank know what effect such a small decision would make on his life.”

“By Sunday, Frank would regret his decision.”

“Frank wasn’t worried about losing altitude in his helium airship. The pressure inside the envelope is extremely low, about 1/15 psi: equal to that of a column of water 4-5 cm (11/2 in) high. Because the pressure is so low, a hole in the envelope results only in a very slow leak, taking hours or even days to affect the airship’s performance.”

When the author steps out of the narrative to say, “Hey, look at how good of a story I’m writing”, or “Read these facts I found”, it’s author intrusion. Whether he does it because he thinks he’s building suspense, or from low self-esteem, or from a need to prove he knows what he’s talking about, such intrusions jerk the reader out of the story. The last thing you want is for your reader’s attention to wander. Bring out the research as needed and avoid facts tucked away in parenthesis (I’ve researched this on Yahoo, Google and Bing and find author intrusion unnecessary).


Sometimes, coincidence works.

“Of all the gin joints, in all the towns, in all the world, she walks into mine.” – Casablanca

More often than not, you’re asking your reader to step over the boundary of believable circumstances. What are the odds your heroine, a computer whiz, investigates a security leak that leads to the man who once crushed her heart? Or the father of an ailing boy who happens to share a cab with the brilliant scientist who’s been working on the cure?

Instead, make the event happen because of the character’s decision and action. The computer whiz seeks out the job of investigating her old flame’s corporation. The father researches the best medical mind in the field and arranges to share a cab with the scientist. Make the event a part of the cause and effect the character creates. It’s more interesting, and it provides opportunity for growth and conflict.

As you gear up for NaNoWriMo this year, check to see if you're using cliches.Clichés

Dark as night.

Gasp in surprise.

Burst out laughing.

We’ve all read them so many times, your eyes tend to skip over them. If you’re describing an action, an emotion or a reaction, try a unique way to portray it.

The bile ground in his stomach.

The smell of winter’s decay.

The wet ink of night paled into moist gray.

Also, avoid plot clichés. You know the type. The hard-boiled detective has run out of leads when he unexpectedly receives a phone call promising new information. Before he can meet with the mysterious informant, the person is killed in a freak accident or winds up in a coma.

At the climax of the book, when all is lost and your reader is wondering how the hero will ever get out of such a pickle, the villain goes on and on about what a clever fellow he is, and in his discourse, he creates an opportunity for the hero to free himself.

The beautiful heroine goes into the darkened basement, though she has no weapon, there’s no electricity, no one else is in the house who can help her, and there’s a serial killer on the loose. This qualifies as a plot cliché, but also as a nomination for the Too Stupid To Live Award.

  • If you’ve read this device elsewhere, change your version into something fresh and new.
  • If common sense deserts your character, go back to where he lost reason and fix it. Don’t make him do something stupid to move the plot forward. It’s the sign of a lazy writer.
  • Brainstorm a list of annoying plot clichés you’ve read or seen on the screen. If your book is headed toward any of them, back out and make it right. Learn from other’s mistakes.

As you gear up for NaNoWriMo this year, check your dialogue. Does it sound realistic?Dialogue

“Mattie had ill-will to see me set awa on this ride, and grat awee, the sillie tawpie; but it’s nae mair ferlie to see a woman greet than to see a goose gang barefit.” — Rob Roy

It’s asking a lot for your reader to wade through sentences like the one above. It’s easy enough to give them the flavor of the dialect without bogging them down in the correct mechanics of it and making them lose interest.

Not all of your characters have to be from Scotland, Spain or Italy. We all have accents and all have a unique way of speaking.

—Listen to how people talk. Do you have a co-worker who says “to make a long story short?” all the time? Or, “like,” “you know” or some other identifiable speech quality?

—Write like people speak. We don’t talk perfect. Pauses, phrases, stops and starts fill our every day speech. How often do you use the name of the person you’re talking to in your speech?

—Avoid stereotypes. Unless you’re deeply immersed in the culture you’re writing about, forget having your character spout colloquialisms from the region. In some regions of the U.S., a Coke is a Coke. Or a soda, a soft drink, or a Pop. Don’t appear amateurish to the reader who knows better.

—Avoid profanity and slang. Hemingway said, “Try and write straight English; never using slang except in dialogue and then only when unavoidable . . . slang goes sour in a short time.” It will also date your work. Profanity will jar your reader. Unless it’s an integral part of your character, use it sparingly.

Dialogue tags are another area where you can lose your reader. Do people hiss, moan, laugh, sputter and screamed their words? Take a lesson from the grand master of dialogue, Elmore Leonard—

“Never use a verb other than ‘said’ to carry dialogue.”

Misuse of pronouns

This is a common error if you have a scene with two characters of the same sex. He said, he moved, he pounded his fist—which “he” are you talking about? It’s easy to lose track of your characters. Print the scene and read it out loud to pinpoint areas that need clarifying with the use of a proper name.

Characters: Flat, Too many, and Unsympathetic

A rich, layered story revolves around a protagonist and an antagonist. Secondary characters can act as sounding boards, sources of information and stars in subplots. But, every character should serve a purpose to the main plot and their own plot line. In other words, they’re not the best friend, the coworker, the TV anchor. They have their own agenda, their own goals, motivations and conflicts. You should know the secondary character’s function and where if fits into the overall plan. If it doesn’t support the main plot, think seriously about losing the character.

Is your story book three of a four part serial? Is it necessary to introduce every character from book one and two and give the reader a detailed update? Does your hero have a best friend Joe, and brother John and a coworker Jack? Can they be combined to form one person, one function? It’s not by coincidence that most TV ensemble casts consist of five to eight characters. Too many, and the viewer becomes confused.

Have you written a victim character? Do bad things happen to him, through no fault of his own making, and he suffers a lot? How about a passive character, who witnesses the events in the story but they don’t affect him? Or the bumbling character, who acts but doesn’t learn from his mistakes?

Is your character stereotypical or boring? Can the reader sympathize with him?

While it’s good to make your character suffer, if he isn’t participating in the story, why would your reader? Bad things should happen to the character because of the choices he makes. Cause and effect. Action and reaction. Force him to do something he wouldn’t normally do. Find out what’s the worse thing that could happen to him, and make it happen. You want your character awkward, squirming, unsure and vulnerable as well as growing stronger, learning and applying lessons along the story’s journey. Changing, always changing.

Base your characters on real human traits, with realistic behaviors and reactions. Your reader will identify with them and follow them.


Downtown Pittsburg is different than the Arizona desert. As is Manhattan from the Redwoods. Your setting should look, feel, sound and smell true to its counterpart. If it’s an imaginary world, you have the advantage of creating a world. Don’t omit its texture. If you can immerse the reader in the setting, they’re going buy into it. If, however, they’re in a vacuum, there is no touchstone, nothing they can identify with.

The easiest way to build setting is through details.

—The smell of horseflesh and summer dust, the sweat of the crowd in the heat.

—Hard gravel cut her feet through her thin slippers.

—An indentation in the rough bark of the tree.

—The crackle of last year’s leaves underfoot.

—The vivid color of the sassafras trees cloaking the gown she wore.

Setting is the time and location of your world. It consists of three dimensions:

  1. Period, the story’s place in time. Does it take place in the past? What year? Is it contemporary or in the future?
  2. Duration, the story’s length through time. What is the timeline of the story? Does it take place over several days? Weeks? Years?
  3. Location, the story’s physical place. Small town? City? What buildings in that town? Which rooms?

In writing a story, setting can evoke mood, enhance the theme, acts as a symbol, and influence the character. Don’t overlook the power it can bring to your story.


We hope these tips will strengthen your writing and elevate it several levels. Plot is important to your story. Take the steps we’ve outlined to make your story everything you’ve envisioned.


**2017 Cheryl returning. As you gear up for NaNoWriMo this year, please take these tips into consideration. Yes, speed is the name of the game, but a little judicious outlining will save you headaches as you reach the edit phase of your writing.***



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